Tanzania: Sustainable Coastal Communities and Ecosystems

Seascape-landscape scale conservation practiced in targeted areas through local level governance

The SUCCESS Tanzania Project concentrates its efforts in two land-seascape areas. The first area is the lower Wami River basin, including the Sadaani National Park, Maziwe Reserve and the coastal seascapes in the Pangani and Bagamoyo districts. The second, but less emphasized area is the Mkuranga district bordering the Rufiji-Mafia-Kilwa marine eco region.
There are four components in this result category: landscape scale conservation in the Wami Ruvu River Basin, district action planning, collaborative fisheries management, and mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS on coastal conservation in the Saadani National Park area.

Landscape Scale Conservation in the Wami Ruvu River Basin

SUCCESS promotes landscape-seascape scale conservation in the Wami River basin. The Wami watershed is critical for biodiversity conservation in the Sadaani National Park and contains ecologically important wetland, mangrove and estuarine habitat. In FY07, SUCCESS expanded its level of effort to conserve and promote sustainable use of the water and watershed resources in the Wami and Pangani river basins—from the upper watershed to the estuaries where the rivers drain into the Indian Ocean. This was possible through a new partnership with the Coca-Cola Company and their WADA program. The WADA project ends in 2008. The results of this work and links to publications can be found on the WADA Web Page as well as the Wami-Ruvu Basin Case Study page. To follow up on the WADA activities, SUCCESS Tanzania will continue building capacity of the Wami-Ruvu Basin Water Office (WRBWO) and partnering with private agro-industries to improve their environmental management systems. By the end of the project, we expect :

Assessments are made of the impacts on the lower basin’s estuarine biodiversity, ecological health, and fisheries caused by reduced freshwater flows and on the potential economic impacts of the above influences.
Environmental Flow Assessment techniques are applied to the Wami River watershed to identify freshwater flow needs to meet conservation priorities and assess threats to maintaining desired ecosystem qualities for the coastal areas in and around Sadaani National Park.
Information from the initial Wami river environmental flows assessment is used in basin-wide planning by the Wami-Ruvu River Basin Office.
A profile of the Wami River basin is published
A GIS database is created for the Wami River basin
Partnerships with the agro-industrial sector in the Wam-Ruvu and Pangani river basins produces recommendations for reducing water use and environmental contamination that are voluntarily adopted by the private sector
District Action Planning

Using a learning-by-doing strategy, the project works within the Bagamoyo, Pangani and Mkuranga districts to build the capacity to plan, adapt and implement district ICM action plans, and incorporate these into the overall district development plans. The project uses an adaptive management approach to build multi-sectoral linkages into the action plans and include a greater degree of specificity than was included initially. By the end of the project, we expect:

The three target districts continue demonstrating the benefits of ICM – implementing ICM action plans that are mainstreamed into the district planning cycle, linking to national priorities, and addressing major issues that cuts across the districts (e.g. action research around low-cost, modified trawl-gear designs)
One districts ICM action plan (Bagamoyo) is updated, using the revised district action planning guidelines, and based on the first five years of implementing the original plans.
At least 60,000 hectares in the Pangani, Bagamoyo, and Mkuranga districts with improved natural resource management, including biologically significant areas, watersheds, forest areas, and sustainable agricultural lands
The Bagamoyo, Pangani, and Mkuranga districts are providing resources to support ICM action planning and implementation
Collaborative Resource Management in the Bagamoyo and Mkuranga Districts

Throughout the developing world, artisanal fishers are among the poorest of the poor. The problems they face include overexploitation of inshore stocks, intrusion by industrial trawlers into near-shore fishing grounds, destructive fishing practices and overall environmental degradation. The project’s village-based natural resource management efforts focus on bringing about changes in human behavior that lead to improved fish stocks and reef conditions in crucial ecosystems at the district level. We expect that fisheries management-related results will emerge from actions taken in the targeted fishing communities of Bagamoyo while nested within larger-scale fisheries ecosystem management strategies. By the end of the project, we expect:

Collaborative fisheries management plan (CFMP) and associated no-take fishery reserves are established in the Bagamoyo District
A training manual, developed by SUCCESS, is used by community reef monitors to measure changes in fish abundance and other key indicators.
An environmental baseline conducted of the reefs in Mkuranga
A zoning plan for mariculture areas (present and future) in Mkuranga developed in collaboration with coastal villagers, scientists, and the Mangrove Management Project.
Local capacity is established to monitor the condition and health of the ecosystems within the CFMP area and the data is being used to adaptively manage coastal resources.
Abundance and diversity of fish and live coral cover inside no-take marine fishery reserves in CFMP areas remains stable or increases.
Mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS on biodiversity conservation

The Saadani National Park (SANAPA) is unique in that it includes terrestrial and marine areas. To date, SANAPA has only managed the terrestrial area, but since the National Park was gazetted in the end of 2005, we can expect that the marine area will be managed as well. Our goal is to assist the Park Management by working with them and the coastal communities to conduct an environmental baseline of the marine area of the Saadani National Park (e.g. fish abundance and coral cover). The baseline will provide a basis for more detailed management plans of the marine zone of SANAPA. We will also improve the capacity of the SANAPA staff to conduct community based marine monitoring and to better understand linkages between HIV, fisheries, and coastal resource use. This will include addressing the issue of over-harvesting of wood, exacerbated by HIV/AIDS. Coupled with the recent expansion of the Sadaani National Park – which accelerates wood scarcity – HIV/AIDS makes life more difficult for poor vulnerable groups. Caring for the sick and loss of labor draws down precious time and resources of already vulnerable families and forces some to use non-potable water and to poach wood and other resources in the Park. By the end of the project, we expect:

SANAPA has designed a strategy for managing the marine component of the park, including an initial characterization and baseline of the ecosystem.
SANAPA staff capable of – and participating in – reef monitoring in the Marine Zone of SANAPA
Tree nurseries and woodlots established as a long-term intervention to decrease fuel-wood cutting in SANAPA.
The pressure on forest resources decrease in the landscape within and surrounding the Saadani National Park, through the construction of 400 fuel-efficient wood-burning stoves, leading to a saving of 600 tons of fuel-wood annually, coupled with the establishment of woodlots holding a total of 64,000 seedlings
Local conservation plans (e.g. district action plans, collaborative fisheries management plans and the Saadani General Management Plan) integrate HIV/AIDS and gender