The Project is assisting our key partner, the Department of Fisheries, and related private sector stakeholder groups (including management committees at the community fisheries centers) in developing the capacity to implement, evaluate and make improvements to specific fisheries management plans (sole and bivalves) using a co-management and ecosystems-based approach, including consideration of the impacts of climate change . Inextricably linked to institutional capacity to manage the fishery sustainably is the goal to prevent overfishing. Uncertainty on whether or not some of these specific species are fully exploited complicates decisions making – for instance, on setting total allowable harvest quotas and level of fishing effort necessary to prevent overfishing. If restrictions or reductions in fishing effort are needed, this is politically difficult, especially if it requires some fishers to leave the occupation. Putting in place key enabling conditions including co-management committees, registration and licensing schemes, and effort restrictions, are key project targets. This can be complicated and requires stakeholder buy-in in order to be effective. Where retirement from fishing cannot be avoided, it is important to have alternative livelihoods schemes and strategies in place to help individuals who must make the difficult transition into a new livelihood. These complicated issues highlight some of the challenges of building governance capacity.